Interrelationship of population, environment and development:
Population and Environment: Rapid increase in population disturbs the biotic environment. The rate, at which world population is increasing, is alarming. Human beings are forced to encroach upon forests, mountains, sea and rivers, for space and food. More habitable and cultivable land is required, as also more space is needed for grazing the cattle. Wild animals are being killed indiscriminately for food and money. Trees are being cut to satisfy the needs of fuel and timber. This has caused an ecological crisis. If it is not checked, it is bound to bring disaster. Explosion of population has also caused overcrowding. It has caused physical discomfort, which creates mental tension. Living with mental tension is bound to cause social and health disorders.
Environment and Sustainable Development: In earlier days, human beings were leading a harmonious life with nature. In the age of science and technology, they are capable of using more natural resources to create an environment of their own. As such, the natural environment is shaped, guided and directed by socio-economic considerations. This practice has led to degradation of natural environment. Old villages, hills, beaches, etc., have been converted into cities and big towns. In order to increase communication for trade purposes, a network of roads and transport has been established. Tourism has been given importance and big hotels have been constructed. Agricultural lands have been used in constructing big hotels, industries, etc. Big dams have been constructed in order to generate more electricity for the industries. Water bodies have shrunken.
To maintain a balance between environment and development, it is necessary to strive for sustainable development to meet the needs of present generation without foreclosing the options for future generation. To achieve this, one has to consider different aspects of development. Conservation, sustainability and biological diversity are interrelated. If human beings have to survive, they have to live in harmony with nature. More plants have to be planted. Green grassy patches have to be interspersed between concrete buildings. We will have to adopt such technologies which are environment friendly, sound, and based on maximizing recycling and efficient use of resources.