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Wednesday, February 20, 2008

Dust control systems in coal handling plant


Dust control systems in coal handling plant:
Thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants) use coal as their fuel. To handle the coal, each power station is equipped with a coal handling plant. The coal has to be sized, processed, and handled which should be done effectively and efficiently. The major factor which reduces the staff efficiency in operation of coal handling plant is the working environment i.e. a dusty atmosphere and condition. Lots of care is always needed to reduce dust emission. In developing countries, all most all systems used in power station coal handling plants are wet dust suppression systems.

A. After dust is formed, control systems are used to reduce dust emissions. Although installing a dust control system does not assure total prevention of dust emissions, a well-designed dust control system can protect workers and often provide other benefits, such as

(a) Preventing or reducing risk of dust explosion or fire;

(b) Increasing visibility and reducing probability of accidents;

(c) Preventing unpleasant odors;

(d) Reducing cleanup and maintenance costs;

(e) Reducing equipment wear, especially for components such as bearings and pulleys on which fine dust can cause a "grinding" effect and increase wear or abrasion rates;

(f) Increasing worker morale and productivity;

(g) Assuring continuous compliance with existing health regulations. In addition, proper planning, design, installation, operation, and maintenance are essential for an efficient, cost-effective, and reliable dust control system.

B. There are two basic types of dust control systems currently used in minerals processing operations are:
(a) Dust collection system - Dust collection systems use ventilation principles to capture the dust-filled air-stream and carry it away from the source through ductwork to the collector. A typical dust collection system consists of four major components, such as (1) An exhaust hood to capture dust emissions at the source; (2) Ductwork to transport the captured dust to a dust collector; (3) A dust collector to remove the dust from the air; (4) A fan and motor to provide the necessary exhaust volume and energy.
(b) Wet dust suppression system - Wet dust suppression techniques use water sprays to wet the material so that it generates less dust. There are two different types of wet dust suppressions: (i) wets the dust before it is airborne (surface wetting) and (ii) wets the dust after it becomes airborne. In many cases surfactants or chemical foams are often added to the water into these systems in order to improve performance. A water spray with surfactant means that a surfactant has been added to the water in order to lower the surface tension of the water droplets and allow these droplets to spread further over the material and also to allow deeper penetration into the material.
i. Surface wetting system: The principle behind surface wetting is the idea that dust will not even be given a chance to form and become airborne. With this method, effective wetting of the material can take place by static spreading (wetting material while it is stationary) and dynamic spreading (wetting material while it is moving). For static wetting, more effective dust suppression arises by increasing the surface coverage by either reducing the droplet diameter or its contact angle. For dynamic spreading, more factors come into play such as the surface tension of the liquid, the droplet diameter, the size of the material being suppressed, and the droplet impact velocity.
ii. Airborne dust capture system - Airborne dust capture systems may also use a water-spray technique; however, airborne dust particles are sprayed with atomized water. When the dust particles collide with the water droplets, agglomerates are formed. These agglomerates become too heavy to remain airborne and settle. Airborne dust wet suppression systems work on the principle of spraying very small water droplets into airborne dust. When the small droplets collide with the airborne dust particles, they stick to each other and fall out of the air to the ground. This collision between the particles occurs due to three factors involving both the water and the dust particles. As a dust particle and water particle approach each other, the airflow could move the particle around the droplet, have a direct hit on the droplet, or barely graze the droplet. It is this factor that leads us to the second factor, which is that droplets and particles that are of similar sizes have the best chance of a collision. If a droplet is smaller than the dust particle or vice versa, then they may never collide and instead just be swept around each other. The last factor is the dependence of an electrostatic force on a droplet and how the path is affected by this force. Just like with magnets, similarly charged particles repel each others. Thus it is advantageous to have the particles either both neutrally charged (so that they neither repel nor attract one another) or oppositely charged (so that they attract one another) in order to increase the likelihood of a water and particle collision.

C. System Efficiency: Over the years, water sprays has established the following facts: (1) For a given spray nozzle, the collection efficiency for small dust particles increases as the pressure increases; (2) At a given pressure, the efficiency increases as the nozzle design is changed so as to produce smaller droplets. The efficiency of spray dust capture increases by increasing the number of smaller sized spray droplets per unit volume of water utilized and by optimizing the energy transfer of spray droplets with the dust-laden air.

D. Sophisticated system like ‘Ultrasonic Dust Suppression’ systems uses water and compressed air to produce micron sized droplets that are able to suppress respirable dust without adding any detectable moisture to the process. Ideal for spray curtains to contain dust within hoppers. The advantages of using Ultrasonic Atomizing Systems for dust suppression can therefore be summarized as:

(a) reduced health hazards;

(b) decrease in atmospheric pollution;

(c) improved working conditions;

(d) efficient operation with minimum use of water.

8 comments:

Aircon house said...

Nice post about Dust Pollution Control Systems
keep posting ..

Komarudin, S.Si said...

good information

best regards
komarudin

DeclanJustin said...

Dust particle generated in coal handling plant is a major challenge. Dust Collection Systems such as cyclones and bag houses are the corrective measures to handle the problem. Thanks.


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Simtel said...

Hi,
i gone through your website about your air ventilation requirements and Dust Collector manufacturers its really nice. if you want additional information about Dust Collector manufacturers

for more info visit us http://www.ventilationandfiltration.com

Ashton Noble said...

This types of industrial dust control system is very important for us and our environment because it provides a healthier environment and it costs less to operate than your current system.

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Julia Thomas said...

I would like to thank you for your wonderful post in explaining in deep about the "Dust control systems in coal handling plant" I was trying to learn about the Fog Cannon Dust Suppression System and I ordered one from the best Fog Cannon Dust Suppression System Thank u.

Gina Woody said...

I would like to recommend your article on Dust Collection Systems.You can also refer Dry Fog cannon Dust Suppression Systems for more information.

Aircon house said...

Hi, really a nice post regarding dust pollution control systems.